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Sources of the Historical Data 1980-1992

Historical perspectives: 1980-1985
# Source Year Who was asked? Subject asked? # contributions # countries
1 Business International 1980 Assessment by staff (journalists) Degree to which business transactions involve corruption or questionable payments - 68
2 Political Risk Service, East Syracuse, NY 1982/84/85 Assessment by staff (Integers between 0 and 6) likeliness to demand special and illegal payments in high and low levels of government - 128
Historical perspectives: 1988-1992
# Source Year Who was asked? Subject asked? # contributions # countries
1 Business International 1988Assessment by staff (journalists) Degree to which business transactions involve corruption or questionable payments - 67
2 Political Risk Service, East Syracuse, NY 1988Assessment by staff (Integers between 0 and 6) likeliness to demand special and illegal payments in high and low levels of government - 128
3 World Competitiveness Report, Institute for Management Development, Lausanne 1992 Executives in top and middle management Improper practices (such as bribing or corruption) in the public sphere ca. 2500 36
4 Political & Economic Risk Consultancy, Hong Kong 1992 Senior Executives of Banks Level of corruption ca. 60 10 Asian countries

Back to the historical data.