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The 2008 Corruption Perceptions Index

Explanatory notes

CPI 2008 Score relates to perceptions of the degree of corruption as seen by business people, and country analysts, and ranges between 10 (highly clean) and 0 (highly corrupt).

Surveys Used refers to the number of surveys that assessed a country's performance. A total of 13 surveys and expert assessments were used, and at least three surveys were required for a country to be included in the CPI.

Standard Deviation indicates differences in the values of the sources. As indicated by colors, values below 0.5 indicate agreement, values between 0.5 and 1.0 indicate some agreement, while values larger than 1.0 indicate disagreement.

High-Low Range provides the highest and lowest values of the different sources.

90 percent confidence range provides a range of possible values of the CPI score. This reflects how a country's score may vary, depending on measurement precision. With 5 percent probability the score is above this range and with another 5 percent it is below. However, particularly when only few sources (n) are availbale, an unbiased estimate of the mean coverage probability is lower than the nominal value of 90%. It is 65.3% for n=3, 73.6% for n=4, 78.4% for n=5, 80.2% for n=6 and 81.8% for n=7.

Country Rank Country 2008 CPI Score Surveys Used Standard Deviation High-Low Range Confidence range
1 Denmark 9.3 6 0.2 8.9 - 9.6 9.1 - 9.4
New Zealand 9.3 6 0.2 8.9 - 9.6 9.2 - 9.5
Sweden 9.3 6 0.1 9.1 - 9.4 9.2 - 9.4
4 Singapore 9.2 9 0.3 8.4 - 9.6 9.0 - 9.3
5 Finland 9.0 6 0.8 7.5 - 9.4 8.4 - 9.4
Switzerland 9.0 6 0.4 8.5 - 9.4 8.7 - 9.2
7 Iceland 8.9 5 0.9 7.3 - 9.5 8.1 - 9.4
Netherlands 8.9 6 0.5 8.0 - 9.4 8.5 - 9.1
9 Australia 8.7 8 0.7 7.2 - 9.4 8.2 - 9.1
Canada 8.7 6 0.5 8.0 - 9.4 8.4 - 9.1
11 Luxembourg 8.3 6 0.8 7.3 - 9.2 7.8 - 8.8
12 Austria 8.1 6 0.8 7.3 - 8.9 7.6 - 8.6
Hong Kong 8.1 8 1.0 6.3 - 9.3 7.5 - 8.6
14 Germany 7.9 6 0.6 7.3 - 8.5 7.5 - 8.2
Norway 7.9 6 0.6 7.3 - 8.9 7.5 - 8.3
16 Ireland 7.7 6 0.3 7.3 - 8.0 7.5 - 7.9
United Kingdom 7.7 6 0.7 6.6 - 8.4 7.2 - 8.1
18 Belgium 7.3 6 0.2 7.1 - 7.6 7.2 - 7.4
Japan 7.3 8 0.5 6.3 - 8.1 7.0 - 7.6
USA 7.3 8 0.9 5.3 - 8.2 6.7 - 7.7
21 Saint Lucia 7.1 3 0.4 6.6 - 7.5 6.6 - 7.3
22 Barbados 7.0 4 0.5 6.3 - 7.5 6.5 - 7.3
23 Chile 6.9 7 0.5 5.9 - 7.6 6.5 - 7.2
France 6.9 6 0.7 5.9 - 7.7 6.5 - 7.3
Uruguay 6.9 5 0.5 6.4 - 7.5 6.5 - 7.2
26 Slovenia 6.7 8 0.5 6.1 - 7.5 6.5 - 7.0
27 Estonia 6.6 8 0.7 5.3 - 7.2 6.2 - 6.9
28 Qatar 6.5 4 0.9 5.3 - 7.5 5.6 - 7.0
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 6.5 3 1.5 4.7 - 7.5 4.7 - 7.3
Spain 6.5 6 1.0 4.6 - 7.3 5.7 - 6.9
31 Cyprus 6.4 3 0.8 5.9 - 7.3 5.9 - 6.8
32 Portugal 6.1 6 0.9 5.2 - 7.3 5.6 - 6.7
33 Dominica 6.0 3 1.3 4.7 - 7.3 4.7 - 6.8
Israel 6.0 6 0.6 5.3 - 6.7 5.6 - 6.3
35 United Arab Emirates 5.9 5 1.4 3.9 - 7.5 4.8 - 6.8
36 Botswana 5.8 6 1.0 4.6 - 7.3 5.2 - 6.4
Malta 5.8 4 0.6 5.3 - 6.6 5.3 - 6.3
Puerto Rico 5.8 4 1.1 4.8 - 7.3 5.0 - 6.6
39 Taiwan 5.7 9 0.6 4.9 - 6.4 5.4 - 6.0
40 South Korea 5.6 9 1.1 3.8 - 8.0 5.1 - 6.3
41 Mauritius 5.5 5 1.1 4.6 - 7.3 4.9 - 6.4
Oman 5.5 5 1.4 3.5 - 7.5 4.5 - 6.4
43 Bahrain 5.4 5 1.1 3.5 - 6.3 4.3 - 5.9
Macao 5.4 4 1.4 3.4 - 6.6 3.9 - 6.2
45 Bhutan 5.2 5 1.1 3.9 - 6.6 4.5 - 5.9
Czech Republic 5.2 8 1.0 4.3 - 7.5 4.8 - 5.9
47 Cape Verde 5.1 3 1.6 3.4 - 6.6 3.4 - 5.6
Costa Rica 5.1 5 0.4 4.6 - 5.6 4.8 - 5.3
Hungary 5.1 8 0.6 4.2 - 5.9 4.8 - 5.4
Jordan 5.1 7 1.9 2.9 - 7.6 4.0 - 6.2
Malaysia 5.1 9 1.1 3.3 - 6.8 4.5 - 5.7
52 Latvia 5.0 6 0.3 4.6 - 5.4 4.8 - 5.2
Slovakia 5.0 8 0.7 3.5 - 5.9 4.5 - 5.3
54 South Africa 4.9 8 0.5 3.8 - 5.3 4.5 - 5.1
55 Italy 4.8 6 1.2 3.3 - 6.3 4.0 - 5.5
Seychelles 4.8 4 1.7 3.2 - 7.3 3.7 - 5.9
57 Greece 4.7 6 0.6 3.5 - 5.3 4.2 - 5.0
58 Lithuania 4.6 8 1.0 3.2 - 6.2 4.1 - 5.2
Poland 4.6 8 1.0 3.3 - 5.9 4.0 - 5.2
Turkey 4.6 7 0.9 3.3 - 5.9 4.1 - 5.1
61 Namibia 4.5 6 1.1 3.2 - 5.9 3.8 - 5.1
62 Croatia 4.4 8 0.7 3.5 - 5.3 4.0 - 4.8
Samoa 4.4 3 0.8 3.4 - 4.9 3.4 - 4.8
Tunisia 4.4 6 1.6 3.2 - 7.1 3.5 - 5.5
65 Cuba 4.3 4 0.9 3.2 - 5.3 3.6 - 4.8
Kuwait 4.3 5 1.4 2.5 - 5.9 3.3 - 5.2
67 El Salvador 3.9 5 1.0 2.7 - 4.9 3.2 - 4.5
Georgia 3.9 7 1.2 2.7 - 5.6 3.2 - 4.6
Ghana 3.9 6 0.8 3.3 - 5.1 3.4 - 4.5
70 Colombia 3.8 7 1.0 2.7 - 5.2 3.3 - 4.5
Romania 3.8 8 0.8 2.7 - 4.9 3.4 - 4.2
72 Bulgaria 3.6 8 1.1 2.4 - 5.6 3.0 - 4.3
China 3.6 9 1.1 2.5 - 6.2 3.1 - 4.3
Macedonia 3.6 6 1.1 1.8 - 5.1 2.9 - 4.3
Mexico 3.6 7 0.4 3.2 - 4.5 3.4 - 3.9
Peru 3.6 6 0.6 3.3 - 4.8 3.4 - 4.1
Suriname 3.6 4 0.6 3.2 - 4.6 3.3 - 4.0
Swaziland 3.6 4 1.1 2.7 - 5.3 2.9 - 4.3
Trinidad and Tobago 3.6 4 0.7 3.0 - 4.6 3.1 - 4.0
80 Brazil 3.5 7 0.6 3.0 - 4.9 3.2 - 4.0
Burkina Faso 3.5 7 1.0 2.5 - 5.3 2.9 - 4.2
Morocco 3.5 6 0.8 2.5 - 4.6 3.0 - 4.0
Saudi Arabia 3.5 5 0.7 2.5 - 4.6 3.0 - 3.9
Thailand 3.5 9 0.8 2.4 - 4.5 3.0 - 3.9
85 Albania 3.4 5 0.1 3.2 - 3.5 3.3 - 3.4
India 3.4 10 0.3 2.7 - 3.9 3.2 - 3.6
Madagascar 3.4 7 1.1 1.8 - 4.9 2.8 - 4.0
Montenegro 3.4 5 1.0 1.8 - 4.6 2.5 - 4.0
Panama 3.4 5 0.6 2.5 - 4.3 2.8 - 3.7
Senegal 3.4 7 0.9 2.7 - 5.3 2.9 - 4.0
Serbia 3.4 6 0.8 2.7 - 4.9 3.0 - 4.0
92 Algeria 3.2 6 0.3 2.7 - 3.5 2.9 - 3.4
Bosnia and Herzegovina 3.2 7 0.6 2.6 - 3.9 2.9 - 3.5
Lesotho 3.2 5 1.1 1.6 - 4.6 2.3 - 3.8
Sri Lanka 3.2 7 0.5 2.5 - 3.9 2.9 - 3.5
96 Benin 3.1 6 0.5 2.7 - 3.9 2.8 - 3.4
Gabon 3.1 4 0.3 2.7 - 3.4 2.8 - 3.3
Guatemala 3.1 5 1.2 1.8 - 5.1 2.3 - 4.0
Jamaica 3.1 5 0.3 2.7 - 3.4 2.8 - 3.3
Kiribati 3.1 3 0.5 2.5 - 3.4 2.5 - 3.4
Mali 3.1 6 0.4 2.6 - 3.4 2.8 - 3.3
102 Bolivia 3.0 6 0.3 2.7 - 3.3 2.8 - 3.2
Djibouti 3.0 4 0.7 1.9 - 3.4 2.2 - 3.3
Dominican Republic 3.0 5 0.4 2.6 - 3.4 2.7 - 3.2
Lebanon 3.0 4 1.0 1.8 - 4.2 2.2 - 3.6
Mongolia 3.0 7 0.5 2.0 - 3.4 2.6 - 3.3
Rwanda 3.0 5 0.4 2.5 - 3.3 2.7 - 3.2
Tanzania 3.0 7 0.6 1.8 - 3.4 2.5 - 3.3
109 Argentina 2.9 7 0.7 1.8 - 3.5 2.5 - 3.3
Armenia 2.9 7 0.4 2.3 - 3.4 2.6 - 3.1
Belize 2.9 3 1.2 1.8 - 4.2 1.8 - 3.7
Moldova 2.9 7 1.1 1.8 - 5.3 2.4 - 3.7
Solomon Islands 2.9 3 0.5 2.5 - 3.4 2.5 - 3.2
Vanuatu 2.9 3 0.5 2.5 - 3.4 2.5 - 3.2
115 Egypt 2.8 6 0.7 2.0 - 3.5 2.4 - 3.2
Malawi 2.8 6 0.6 1.8 - 3.3 2.4 - 3.1
Maldives 2.8 4 1.7 1.5 - 5.3 1.7 - 4.3
Mauritania 2.8 7 1.2 1.8 - 5.3 2.2 - 3.7
Niger 2.8 6 0.5 1.9 - 3.3 2.4 - 3.0
Zambia 2.8 7 0.4 2.1 - 3.3 2.5 - 3.0
121 Nepal 2.7 6 0.5 1.8 - 3.4 2.4 - 3.0
Nigeria 2.7 7 0.5 1.9 - 3.3 2.3 - 3.0
Sao Tome and Principe 2.7 3 0.6 2.1 - 3.3 2.1 - 3.1
Togo 2.7 6 1.4 1.5 - 5.3 1.9 - 3.7
Viet Nam 2.7 9 0.7 1.8 - 3.9 2.4 - 3.1
126 Eritrea 2.6 5 1.3 1.4 - 4.6 1.7 - 3.6
Ethiopia 2.6 7 0.6 1.9 - 3.3 2.2 - 2.9
Guyana 2.6 4 0.2 2.3 - 2.7 2.4 - 2.7
Honduras 2.6 6 0.5 1.8 - 3.5 2.3 - 2.9
Indonesia 2.6 10 0.6 1.8 - 3.6 2.3 - 2.9
Libya 2.6 5 0.6 1.8 - 3.4 2.2 - 3.0
Mozambique 2.6 7 0.4 2.1 - 3.3 2.4 - 2.9
Uganda 2.6 7 0.7 1.8 - 3.5 2.2 - 3.0
134 Comoros 2.5 3 0.8 1.9 - 3.4 1.9 - 3.0
Nicaragua 2.5 6 0.4 1.8 - 2.9 2.2 - 2.7
Pakistan 2.5 7 0.7 1.3 - 3.3 2.0 - 2.8
Ukraine 2.5 8 0.5 1.8 - 3.2 2.2 - 2.8
138 Liberia 2.4 4 0.7 1.8 - 3.2 1.8 - 2.8
Paraguay 2.4 5 0.5 1.8 - 2.9 2.0 - 2.7
Tonga 2.4 3 0.4 1.9 - 2.7 1.9 - 2.6
141 Cameroon 2.3 7 0.7 1.8 - 3.3 2.0 - 2.7
Iran 2.3 4 0.5 1.8 - 2.7 1.9 - 2.5
Philippines 2.3 9 0.4 1.8 - 2.7 2.1 - 2.5
Yemen 2.3 5 0.7 1.8 - 3.4 1.9 - 2.8
145 Kazakhstan 2.2 6 0.7 1.7 - 3.4 1.8 - 2.7
Timor-Leste 2.2 4 0.4 1.8 - 2.7 1.8 - 2.5
147 Bangladesh 2.1 7 0.5 1.4 - 2.7 1.7 - 2.4
Kenya 2.1 7 0.4 1.8 - 2.7 1.9 - 2.4
Russia 2.1 8 0.6 1.6 - 3.4 1.9 - 2.5
Syria 2.1 5 0.6 1.3 - 2.7 1.6 - 2.4
151 Belarus 2.0 5 0.7 1.3 - 3.2 1.6 - 2.5
Central African Republic 2.0 5 0.3 1.8 - 2.5 1.9 - 2.2
Cte d'Ivoire 2.0 6 0.7 1.5 - 3.3 1.7 - 2.5
Ecuador 2.0 5 0.3 1.8 - 2.5 1.8 - 2.2
Laos 2.0 6 0.5 1.5 - 2.7 1.6 - 2.3
Papua New Guinea 2.0 6 0.6 1.0 - 2.7 1.6 - 2.3
Tajikistan 2.0 8 0.5 1.5 - 2.9 1.7 - 2.3
158 Angola 1.9 6 0.5 1.0 - 2.7 1.5 - 2.2
Azerbaijan 1.9 8 0.4 1.3 - 2.5 1.7 - 2.1
Burundi 1.9 6 0.7 1.0 - 2.9 1.5 - 2.3
Congo. Republic 1.9 6 0.1 1.8 - 2.1 1.8 - 2.0
Gambia 1.9 5 0.6 1.4 - 3.0 1.5 - 2.4
Guinea-Bissau 1.9 3 0.2 1.8 - 2.1 1.8 - 2.0
Sierra Leone 1.9 5 0.1 1.8 - 2.1 1.8 - 2.0
Venezuela 1.9 7 0.1 1.8 - 2.1 1.8 - 2.0
166 Cambodia 1.8 7 0.2 1.5 - 1.9 1.7 - 1.9
Kyrgyzstan 1.8 7 0.2 1.5 - 2.0 1.7 - 1.9
Turkmenistan 1.8 5 0.5 1.1 - 2.7 1.5 - 2.2
Uzbekistan 1.8 8 0.7 1.1 - 3.2 1.5 - 2.2
Zimbabwe 1.8 7 0.5 0.9 - 2.7 1.5 - 2.1
171 Congo. Democratic Republic 1.7 6 0.2 1.5 - 2.1 1.6 - 1.9
Equatorial Guinea 1.7 4 0.2 1.4 - 1.9 1.5 - 1.8
173 Chad 1.6 6 0.2 1.4 - 1.9 1.5 - 1.7
Guinea 1.6 6 0.4 1.0 - 2.1 1.3 - 1.9
Sudan 1.6 6 0.2 1.3 - 1.9 1.5 - 1.7
176 Afghanistan 1.5 4 0.3 1.0 - 1.8 1.1 - 1.6
177 Haiti 1.4 4 0.4 1.0 - 2.0 1.1 - 1.7
178 Iraq 1.3 4 0.3 1.0 - 1.8 1.1 - 1.6
Myanmar 1.3 4 0.4 1.0 - 1.8 1.0 - 1.5
180 Somalia 1.0 4 0.6 0.3 - 1.8 0.5 - 1.4