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The 2006 Corruption Perceptions Index

Explanatory notes

CPI 2006 Score relates to perceptions of the degree of corruption as seen by business people, and country analysts, and ranges between 10 (highly clean) and 0 (highly corrupt).

Surveys Used refers to the number of surveys that assessed a country's performance. A total of XY surveys and expert assessments were used, and at least three surveys were required for a country to be included in the CPI.

Standard Deviation indicates differences in the values of the sources. As indicated by colors, values below 0.5 indicate agreement, values between 0.5 and 1.0 indicate some agreement, while values larger than 1.0 indicate disagreement.

High-Low Range provides the highest and lowest values of the different sources.

90 percent confidence range provides a range of possible values of the CPI score. This reflects how a country's score may vary, depending on measurement precision. With 5 percent probability the score is above this range and with another 5 percent it is below. However, particularly when only few sources (n) are availbale, an unbiased estimate of the mean coverage probability is lower than the nominal value of 90%. It is 65.3% for n=3, 73.6% for n=4, 78.4% for n=5, 80.2% for n=6 and 81.8% for n=7.

Country Rank Country 2006 CPI Score Surveys Used Standard Deviation High-Low Range Confidence range
1 Finland 9.6 7 0.2 9.2 - 9.8 9.4 - 9.7
Iceland 9.6 6 0.2 9.2 - 9.8 9.5 - 9.7
New Zealand 9.6 7 0.2 9.2 - 9.7 9.4 - 9.6
4 Denmark 9.5 7 0.2 9.2 - 9.7 9.4 - 9.6
5 Singapore 9.4 9 0.2 8.9 - 9.7 9.2 - 9.5
6 Sweden 9.2 7 0.2 8.8 - 9.4 9.0 - 9.3
7 Switzerland 9.1 7 0.3 8.6 - 9.4 8.9 - 9.2
8 Norway 8.8 7 0.6 7.7 - 9.3 8.4 - 9.1
9 Australia 8.7 8 0.7 7.7 - 9.4 8.3 - 9.0
Netherlands 8.7 7 0.5 7.7 - 9.3 8.3 - 9.0
11 Austria 8.6 7 0.6 7.7 - 9.2 8.2 - 8.9
Luxembourg 8.6 6 0.7 7.7 - 9.7 8.1 - 9.0
United Kingdom 8.6 7 0.6 7.7 - 9.2 8.2 - 8.9
14 Canada 8.5 7 0.7 7.6 - 9.3 8.0 - 8.9
15 Hong Kong 8.3 9 1.0 6.7 - 9.3 7.7 - 8.8
16 Germany 8.0 7 0.5 7.5 - 9.1 7.8 - 8.4
17 Japan 7.6 9 1.0 5.4 - 8.9 7.0 - 8.1
18 France 7.4 7 0.9 5.5 - 8.5 6.7 - 7.8
Ireland 7.4 7 0.9 5.5 - 8.4 6.7 - 7.9
20 Belgium 7.3 7 1.0 5.5 - 8.9 6.6 - 7.9
Chile 7.3 7 0.8 5.5 - 7.7 6.6 - 7.6
USA 7.3 8 1.1 5.1 - 8.6 6.6 - 7.8
23 Spain 6.8 7 0.8 5.5 - 7.7 6.3 - 7.2
24 Barbados 6.7 4 0.8 5.8 - 7.7 6.0 - 7.2
Estonia 6.7 8 1.1 5.4 - 8.9 6.1 - 7.4
26 Macao 6.6 3 1.2 5.4 - 7.7 5.4 - 7.1
Portugal 6.6 7 1.2 5.1 - 7.7 5.9 - 7.3
28 Malta 6.4 4 1.7 5.0 - 8.9 5.4 - 7.3
Slovenia 6.4 8 1.2 4.9 - 8.0 5.7 - 7.0
Uruguay 6.4 5 0.8 5.7 - 7.7 5.9 - 7.0
31 United Arab Emirates 6.2 5 0.9 5.4 - 7.6 5.6 - 6.9
32 Bhutan 6.0 3 1.9 4.1 - 8.0 4.1 - 7.3
Qatar 6.0 5 0.7 5.4 - 7.0 5.6 - 6.5
34 Israel 5.9 7 1.1 4.1 - 7.6 5.2 - 6.5
Taiwan 5.9 9 0.5 5.2 - 6.6 5.6 - 6.2
36 Bahrain 5.7 5 0.7 4.9 - 6.7 5.3 - 6.2
37 Botswana 5.6 6 1.4 4.1 - 7.7 4.8 - 6.6
Cyprus 5.6 4 0.5 5.1 - 6.1 5.2 - 5.9
39 Oman 5.4 3 1.3 4.1 - 6.7 4.1 - 6.2
40 Jordan 5.3 7 1.0 3.2 - 6.2 4.5 - 5.7
41 Hungary 5.2 8 0.4 4.6 - 5.8 5.0 - 5.4
42 Mauritius 5.1 5 1.7 3.6 - 7.7 4.1 - 6.3
South Korea 5.1 9 0.8 4.0 - 6.0 4.7 - 5.5
44 Malaysia 5.0 9 1.0 3.5 - 6.6 4.5 - 5.5
45 Italy 4.9 7 0.9 4.0 - 6.1 4.4 - 5.4
46 Czech Republic 4.8 8 0.7 4.0 - 5.8 4.4 - 5.2
Kuwait 4.8 5 1.0 3.2 - 5.8 4.0 - 5.4
Lithuania 4.8 6 1.1 3.4 - 6.7 4.2 - 5.6
49 Latvia 4.7 6 1.1 3.6 - 6.7 4.0 - 5.5
Slovakia 4.7 8 0.8 3.6 - 5.8 4.3 - 5.2
51 South Africa 4.6 8 0.9 3.2 - 6.2 4.1 - 5.1
Tunisia 4.6 5 1.2 3.5 - 6.7 3.9 - 5.6
53 Dominica 4.5 3 1.2 3.5 - 5.8 3.5 - 5.3
54 Greece 4.4 7 0.9 3.6 - 5.8 3.9 - 5.0
55 Costa Rica 4.1 5 1.0 3.2 - 5.4 3.3 - 4.8
Namibia 4.1 6 1.0 3.4 - 6.1 3.6 - 4.9
57 Bulgaria 4.0 7 1.2 2.7 - 6.0 3.4 - 4.8
El Salvador 4.0 5 1.1 2.6 - 5.5 3.2 - 4.8
59 Colombia 3.9 7 1.0 3.2 - 5.9 3.5 - 4.7
60 Turkey 3.8 7 0.8 2.3 - 4.9 3.3 - 4.2
61 Jamaica 3.7 5 0.4 3.2 - 4.1 3.4 - 4.0
Poland 3.7 8 1.0 2.8 - 5.8 3.2 - 4.4
63 Lebanon 3.6 3 0.4 3.2 - 4.0 3.2 - 3.8
Seychelles 3.6 3 0.4 3.2 - 4.0 3.2 - 3.8
Thailand 3.6 9 0.7 2.4 - 4.6 3.2 - 3.9
66 Belize 3.5 3 1.0 2.3 - 4.1 2.3 - 4.0
Cuba 3.5 3 1.8 1.8 - 5.4 1.8 - 4.7
Grenada 3.5 3 1.1 2.3 - 4.1 2.3 - 4.1
69 Croatia 3.4 7 0.5 2.7 - 4.1 3.1 - 3.7
70 Brazil 3.3 7 0.4 2.7 - 3.9 3.1 - 3.6
China 3.3 9 0.5 2.2 - 4.2 3.0 - 3.6
Egypt 3.3 6 0.5 2.6 - 4.0 3.0 - 3.7
Ghana 3.3 6 0.5 2.6 - 4.0 3.0 - 3.6
India 3.3 10 0.5 2.7 - 4.3 3.1 - 3.6
Mexico 3.3 7 0.3 2.7 - 3.5 3.1 - 3.4
Peru 3.3 5 0.7 2.6 - 4.1 2.8 - 3.8
Saudi Arabia 3.3 3 1.0 2.2 - 4.1 2.2 - 3.7
Senegal 3.3 5 0.6 2.7 - 4.1 2.8 - 3.7
79 Burkina Faso 3.2 5 0.6 2.7 - 4.1 2.8 - 3.6
Lesotho 3.2 5 0.5 2.6 - 4.0 2.9 - 3.6
Moldova 3.2 7 0.9 2.3 - 4.5 2.7 - 3.8
Morocco 3.2 6 0.6 2.2 - 4.0 2.8 - 3.5
Trinidad and Tobago 3.2 5 0.6 2.6 - 4.0 2.8 - 3.6
84 Algeria 3.1 5 0.7 2.3 - 4.1 2.7 - 3.6
Madagascar 3.1 5 1.0 2.1 - 4.1 2.3 - 3.7
Mauritania 3.1 4 1.1 2.0 - 4.1 2.1 - 3.7
Panama 3.1 5 0.4 2.6 - 3.5 2.8 - 3.3
Romania 3.1 8 0.3 2.7 - 3.5 3.0 - 3.2
Sri Lanka 3.1 6 0.6 2.3 - 4.0 2.7 - 3.5
90 Gabon 3.0 4 0.6 2.2 - 3.5 2.4 - 3.3
Serbia 3.0 7 0.6 2.3 - 4.0 2.7 - 3.3
Suriname 3.0 4 0.4 2.6 - 3.5 2.7 - 3.3
93 Argentina 2.9 7 0.4 2.4 - 3.5 2.7 - 3.2
Armenia 2.9 6 0.3 2.5 - 3.2 2.7 - 3.0
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2.9 6 0.3 2.7 - 3.2 2.7 - 3.1
Eritrea 2.9 3 1.1 2.2 - 4.1 2.2 - 3.5
Syria 2.9 3 0.5 2.3 - 3.2 2.3 - 3.2
Tanzania 2.9 7 0.4 2.4 - 3.5 2.7 - 3.1
99 Dominican Republic 2.8 5 0.6 2.1 - 3.5 2.4 - 3.2
Georgia 2.8 6 0.4 2.2 - 3.2 2.5 - 3.0
Mali 2.8 7 0.7 2.2 - 4.0 2.5 - 3.3
Mongolia 2.8 5 0.8 2.2 - 4.1 2.3 - 3.4
Mozambique 2.8 7 0.4 2.1 - 3.5 2.5 - 3.0
Ukraine 2.8 6 0.4 2.3 - 3.4 2.5 - 3.0
105 Bolivia 2.7 6 0.4 2.2 - 3.5 2.4 - 3.0
Iran 2.7 3 0.5 2.3 - 3.2 2.3 - 3.1
Libya 2.7 3 0.5 2.3 - 3.2 2.4 - 3.2
Macedonia 2.7 6 0.3 2.3 - 3.2 2.6 - 2.9
Malawi 2.7 7 0.5 2.2 - 3.5 2.5 - 3.0
Uganda 2.7 7 0.5 2.1 - 3.5 2.4 - 3.0
111 Albania 2.6 5 0.3 2.2 - 2.8 2.4 - 2.7
Guatemala 2.6 5 0.5 2.2 - 3.5 2.3 - 3.0
Kazakhstan 2.6 6 0.4 2.1 - 3.2 2.3 - 2.8
Laos 2.6 4 1.0 1.9 - 4.0 2.0 - 3.1
Nicaragua 2.6 6 0.4 2.2 - 3.2 2.4 - 2.9
Paraguay 2.6 5 0.8 2.2 - 4.0 2.2 - 3.3
Timor-Leste 2.6 3 0.6 2.1 - 3.2 2.3 - 3.0
Viet Nam 2.6 8 0.4 1.9 - 3.5 2.4 - 2.9
Yemen 2.6 4 0.2 2.3 - 2.7 2.4 - 2.7
Zambia 2.6 6 0.7 1.6 - 3.5 2.1 - 3.0
121 Benin 2.5 6 0.6 1.8 - 3.2 2.1 - 2.9
Gambia 2.5 6 0.4 1.9 - 3.2 2.3 - 2.8
Guyana 2.5 5 0.3 2.0 - 2.7 2.2 - 2.6
Honduras 2.5 6 0.3 2.2 - 3.0 2.4 - 2.7
Nepal 2.5 5 0.4 2.2 - 3.2 2.3 - 2.9
Philippines 2.5 9 0.4 1.9 - 3.5 2.3 - 2.8
Russia 2.5 8 0.4 1.9 - 3.2 2.3 - 2.7
Rwanda 2.5 3 0.2 2.3 - 2.7 2.3 - 2.6
Swaziland 2.5 3 0.3 2.2 - 2.7 2.2 - 2.7
130 Azerbaijan 2.4 7 0.3 2.2 - 3.1 2.2 - 2.6
Burundi 2.4 5 0.3 2.1 - 2.7 2.2 - 2.6
Central African Republic 2.4 3 0.3 2.2 - 2.7 2.2 - 2.5
Ethiopia 2.4 7 0.4 1.8 - 2.8 2.2 - 2.6
Indonesia 2.4 10 0.4 1.8 - 3.2 2.2 - 2.6
Papua New Guinea 2.4 4 0.2 2.2 - 2.7 2.3 - 2.6
Togo 2.4 3 0.4 1.9 - 2.7 1.9 - 2.6
Zimbabwe 2.4 7 0.6 1.6 - 3.2 2.0 - 2.8
138 Cameroon 2.3 7 0.3 1.8 - 2.7 2.1 - 2.5
Ecuador 2.3 5 0.2 2.0 - 2.6 2.2 - 2.5
Niger 2.3 5 0.3 1.8 - 2.7 2.1 - 2.6
Venezuela 2.3 7 0.1 2.1 - 2.5 2.2 - 2.4
142 Angola 2.2 5 0.3 1.7 - 2.6 1.9 - 2.4
Congo. Republic 2.2 4 0.0 2.2 - 2.3 2.2 - 2.3
Kenya 2.2 7 0.4 1.5 - 2.7 2.0 - 2.4
Kyrgyzstan 2.2 6 0.5 1.7 - 3.2 2.0 - 2.6
Nigeria 2.2 7 0.3 1.8 - 2.7 2.0 - 2.3
Pakistan 2.2 6 0.3 1.6 - 2.6 2.0 - 2.4
Sierra Leone 2.2 3 0.1 2.2 - 2.3 2.2 - 2.3
Tajikistan 2.2 6 0.3 1.9 - 2.7 2.0 - 2.4
Turkmenistan 2.2 4 0.4 1.7 - 2.7 1.9 - 2.5
151 Belarus 2.1 4 0.2 1.8 - 2.3 1.9 - 2.2
Cambodia 2.1 6 0.3 1.6 - 2.6 1.9 - 2.4
Cte d?Ivoire 2.1 4 0.2 1.9 - 2.3 2.0 - 2.2
Equatorial Guinea 2.1 3 0.3 1.7 - 2.3 1.7 - 2.2
Uzbekistan 2.1 5 0.3 1.6 - 2.3 1.8 - 2.2
156 Bangladesh 2.0 6 0.4 1.4 - 2.3 1.7 - 2.2
Chad 2.0 6 0.4 1.5 - 2.7 1.8 - 2.3
Congo. Democratic Republic 2.0 4 0.3 1.7 - 2.3 1.8 - 2.2
Sudan 2.0 4 0.2 1.8 - 2.3 1.8 - 2.2
160 Guinea 1.9 3 0.3 1.7 - 2.2 1.7 - 2.1
Iraq 1.9 3 0.4 1.6 - 2.3 1.6 - 2.1
Myanmar 1.9 3 0.3 1.7 - 2.3 1.8 - 2.3
163 Haiti 1.8 3 0.1 1.7 - 1.9 1.7 - 1.8