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Survey sources for the TI Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 2004

Number 1 2 3
Source World Bank and the EBRD Columbia University, The Center for International Earth Science Information Network Economist Intelligence Unit
Abbreviation BEEPS CU EIU
Name Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey State Capacity Survey Country Risk Service and Country Forecast
Year 2002 2003 2004
Who was surveyed? Senior business people US-resident country experts (policy analysts, academics and journalists) Expert staff assessment
Subject asked Frequency of irregular additional payments; how problematic is corruption for business? Severity of corruption within the state The misuse of public office for private (or political party) gain
Number of replies 6,500 224 Not applicable
Coverage 25 countries 95 countries 142 countries
Number 4 5
Source Freedom House Information International
Abbreviation FH II
Name Nations in Transit Survey of Middle Eastern Business People
Year 2004 2003
Who was surveyed? Assessment by US, regional, and in-country experts Senior businesspeople from Bahrain, Lebanon and UAE
Subject asked Extent of corruption as practiced in governments, as perceived by the public and as reported in the media as well as the implementation of anticorruption initiatives. How common are bribes, how costly are they for doing business and how frequently are public contracts awarded to friends and relatives in neighboring countries
Number of replies Not applicable 382 assessments from 165 respondents
Coverage 28 countries/territories 31 countries
Number 6 7 8
Source Institute for Management Development, Lausanne, Switzerland
Abbreviation IMD
Name World Competitiveness Yearbook
Year 2002 2003 2004
Who was surveyed? Executives in top and middle management; domestic and international companies
Subject asked Bribing and corruption exist in the economy
Number of replies 3,532 > 4,000 4166
Coverage 49 countries 51 countries
Number 9 10
Source A Multilateral Development Bank Merchant International Group
Abbreviation MDB MIG
Name Survey Grey Area Dynamics
Year 2002 2004
Who was surveyed? Experts within the bank were identified and multiple questionnaires (each relating to a different country) were sent out to them. Roughly 40% of the questionnaires were returned. Expert staff and network of local correspondents
Subject asked How widespread is the incidence of corruption? (Widespread; Somewhat widespread; Somewhat limited; Limited; No judgment) Corruption, ranging from bribery of government ministers to inducements payable to the "humblest clerk".
Number of replies 398 Not applicable
Coverage 47 countries 155 countries
Number 11 12 13
Source Political & Economic Risk Consultancy
Abbreviation PERC
Name Asian Intelligence Newsletter
Year 2002 2003 2004
Who was surveyed? Expatriate business executives
Subject asked How bad do you consider the problem of corruption to be in the country in which you are working as well as in your home country?
Number of replies More than 1000 More than 1000 More than 1000
Coverage 14 countries
Number 14 15
Source Gallup International on behalf of Transparency International World Markets Research Center
Abbreviation TI/GI WMRC
Name Corruption Survey Risk Ratings
Year 2002 2004
Who was surveyed? Senior businesspeople from 15 emerging market economies Expert staff assessment
Subject asked How common are bribes to politicians, senior civil servants, and judges and how significant of an obstacle are the costs associated with such payments for doing business? The likelihood of encountering corrupt officials, ranging from petty bureaucratic corruption to grand political corruption.
Number of replies 835 Not applicable
Coverage 21 countries 186 countries
Number 16 17 18
Source World Economic Forum
Abbreviation WEF
Name Global Competitiveness Report
Year 2002 2003 2004
Who was surveyed? Senior business leaders; domestic and international companies
Subject asked Undocumented extra payments connected with various government functions/td>
Number of replies ca. 4,600 7,741 8,700
Coverage 76 countries 102 countries 104 countries