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The 2004 Corruption Perceptions Index

Explanatory notes

CPI 2004 Score relates to perceptions of the degree of corruption as seen by business people, and country analysts, and ranges between 10 (highly clean) and 0 (highly corrupt).

Surveys Used refers to the number of surveys that assessed a country's performance. A total of 18 surveys and expert assessments were used, and at least three surveys were required for a country to be included in the CPI.

Standard Deviation indicates differences in the values of the sources. As indicated by colors, values below 0.5 indicate agreement, values between 0.5 and 0.9 indicate some agreement, while values equal or larger than 1 indicate disagreement.

High-Low Range provides the highest and lowest values of the different sources.

90 percent confidence range provides a range of possible values of the CPI score. This reflects how a country's score may vary, depending on measurement precision. With 5 percent probability the score is above this range and with another 5 percent it is below. However, particularly when only few sources (n) are availbale, an unbiased estimate of the mean coverage probability is lower than the nominal value of 90%. It is 65.3% for n=3, 73.6% for n=4, 78.4% for n=5, 80.2% for n=6 and 81.8% for n=7.

Country rank Country CPI 2004 score Number of Surveys used Standard deviation High-low range 90 % confidence range
1 Finland 9.7 9 0.3 9.2 - 10.0 9.5 - 9.8
2 New Zealand 9.6 9 0.2 9.2 - 9.7 9.4 - 9.6
3 Denmark 9.5 10 0.4 8.7 - 9.8 9.3 - 9.7
Iceland 9.5 8 0.3 9.2 - 9.8 9.4 - 9.7
5 Singapore 9.3 13 0.3 8.5 - 9.5 9.2 - 9.4
6 Sweden 9.2 11 0.3 8.7 - 9.5 9.1 - 9.3
7 Switzerland 9.1 10 0.3 8.6 - 9.4 8.9 - 9.2
8 Norway 8.9 9 0.6 8.0 - 9.5 8.6 - 9.1
9 Australia 8.8 15 0.8 6.7 - 9.5 8.4 - 9.1
10 Netherlands 8.7 10 0.4 8.3 - 9.4 8.5 - 8.9
11 United Kingdom 8.6 12 0.5 7.8 - 9.2 8.4 - 8.8
12 Canada 8.5 12 0.9 6.5 - 9.4 8.1 - 8.9
13 Austria 8.4 10 0.7 7.3 - 9.3 8.1 - 8.8
Luxembourg 8.4 7 0.8 7.3 - 9.6 8.0 - 8.9
15 Germany 8.2 11 0.7 7.5 - 9.2 8.0 - 8.5
16 Hong Kong 8 13 1.6 3.5 - 9.4 7.1 - 8.5
17 Belgium 7.5 10 0.9 6.6 - 9.1 7.1 - 8.0
Ireland 7.5 10 0.7 6.5 - 8.7 7.2 - 7.9
USA 7.5 14 1.2 5.0 - 8.7 6.9 - 8.0
20 Chile 7.4 11 0.8 6.3 - 8.7 7.0 - 7.8
21 Barbados 7.3 3 0.8 6.6 - 8.0 6.6 - 7.6
22 France 7.1 12 1.1 5.0 - 9.0 6.6 - 7.6
Spain 7.1 11 0.7 5.6 - 8.0 6.7 - 7.4
24 Japan 6.9 15 1.4 3.5 - 9.0 6.2 - 7.4
25 Malta 6.8 4 1.9 5.3 - 9.1 5.3 - 8.2
26 Israel 6.4 10 1.5 3.5 - 8.1 5.6 - 7.1
27 Portugal 6.3 9 1.0 5.0 - 7.3 5.8 - 6.8
28 Uruguay 6.2 6 0.7 5.6 - 7.3 5.9 - 6.7
29 Oman 6.1 5 1.3 4.2 - 7.3 5.1 - 6.8
United Arab Emirates 6.1 5 1.5 4.7 - 8.0 5.1 - 7.1
31 Botswana 6 7 1.4 4.4 - 8.0 5.3 - 6.8
Estonia 6 12 1.2 5.0 - 9.1 5.6 - 6.7
Slovenia 6 12 1.0 5.3 - 8.7 5.6 - 6.6
34 Bahrain 5.8 5 0.6 5.3 - 6.6 5.5 - 6.2
35 Taiwan 5.6 15 1.1 3.7 - 7.8 5.2 - 6.1
36 Cyprus 5.4 4 0.6 4.7 - 6.0 5.0 - 5.8
37 Jordan 5.3 9 1.3 3.7 - 6.8 4.6 - 5.9
38 Qatar 5.2 4 0.7 4.3 - 5.8 4.6 - 5.6
39 Malaysia 5 15 1.3 2.6 - 8.0 4.5 - 5.6
Tunisia 5 7 1.0 3.7 - 6.6 4.5 - 5.6
41 Costa Rica 4.9 8 1.4 3.6 - 7.8 4.2 - 5.8
42 Hungary 4.8 12 0.5 4.1 - 5.6 4.6 - 5.0
Italy 4.8 10 0.7 3.4 - 5.6 4.4 - 5.1
44 Kuwait 4.6 5 1.1 3.4 - 5.6 3.8 - 5.3
Lithuania 4.6 9 1.4 3.1 - 7.7 4.0 - 5.4
South Africa 4.6 11 0.8 3.4 - 5.8 4.2 - 5.0
47 South Korea 4.5 14 1.0 2.2 - 5.8 4.0 - 4.9
48 Seychelles 4.4 3 0.9 3.7 - 5.3 3.7 - 5.0
49 Greece 4.3 9 0.8 3.8 - 5.6 4.0 - 4.8
Suriname 4.3 3 2.3 2.1 - 6.6 2.1 - 5.8
51 Czech Republic 4.2 11 1.3 3.4 - 7.3 3.7 - 4.9
El Salvador 4.2 7 1.5 2.1 - 6.3 3.3 - 5.1
Trinidad and Tobago 4.2 6 1.2 3.3 - 6.6 3.6 - 5.2
54 Bulgaria 4.1 10 1.0 2.9 - 5.7 3.7 - 4.6
Mauritius 4.1 5 1.2 2.5 - 5.6 3.2 - 4.8
Namibia 4.1 7 1.0 2.6 - 5.3 3.5 - 4.6
57 Latvia 4 8 0.5 3.5 - 4.8 3.8 - 4.3
Slovakia 4 11 1.0 3.0 - 5.6 3.6 - 4.5
59 Brazil 3.9 11 0.5 3.5 - 4.8 3.7 - 4.1
60 Belize 3.8 3 0.5 3.4 - 4.3 3.4 - 4.1
Colombia 3.8 10 0.8 2.5 - 4.5 3.4 - 4.1
62 Cuba 3.7 4 1.7 1.6 - 5.6 2.2 - 4.7
Panama 3.7 7 0.7 3.0 - 5.1 3.4 - 4.2
64 Ghana 3.6 7 0.9 2.5 - 5.1 3.1 - 4.1
Mexico 3.6 11 0.5 2.6 - 4.5 3.3 - 3.8
Thailand 3.6 14 0.7 2.5 - 4.5 3.3 - 3.9
67 Croatia 3.5 9 0.5 2.7 - 4.2 3.3 - 3.8
Peru 3.5 8 0.5 2.6 - 4.0 3.3 - 3.7
Poland 3.5 13 1.0 2.4 - 5.3 3.1 - 3.9
Sri Lanka 3.5 8 0.8 2.5 - 4.5 3.1 - 3.9
71 China 3.4 16 1.0 2.1 - 5.6 3.0 - 3.8
Saudi Arabia 3.4 5 1.1 2.0 - 4.5 2.7 - 4.0
Syria 3.4 5 1.1 2.1 - 5.1 2.8 - 4.1
74 Belarus 3.3 5 2.0 1.6 - 5.8 1.9 - 4.8
Gabon 3.3 3 1.2 2.1 - 4.3 2.1 - 3.7
Jamaica 3.3 6 0.7 2.1 - 4.2 2.8 - 3.7
77 Benin 3.2 3 1.7 2.0 - 5.1 2.0 - 4.3
Egypt 3.2 8 1.0 2.1 - 5.1 2.7 - 3.8
Mali 3.2 5 1.6 1.5 - 5.1 2.2 - 4.2
Morocco 3.2 7 0.6 2.5 - 3.9 2.9 - 3.5
Turkey 3.2 13 1.0 1.9 - 5.4 2.8 - 3.7
82 Armenia 3.1 5 0.9 2.3 - 4.3 2.4 - 3.7
Bosnia and Herzegovina 3.1 7 0.7 2.3 - 4.0 2.7 - 3.5
Madagascar 3.1 4 1.7 1.7 - 5.3 1.8 - 4.4
85 Mongolia 3 3 0.4 2.6 - 3.4 2.6 - 3.2
Senegal 3 6 0.8 2.0 - 4.2 2.5 - 3.5
87 Dominican Republic 2.9 6 0.7 2.0 - 3.6 2.4 - 3.3
Iran 2.9 5 0.9 1.6 - 3.7 2.2 - 3.4
Romania 2.9 12 1.0 1.7 - 5.1 2.5 - 3.4
90 Gambia 2.8 5 0.9 1.6 - 3.8 2.2 - 3.4
India 2.8 15 0.5 2.2 - 3.7 2.6 - 3.0
Malawi 2.8 5 1.1 2.0 - 4.5 2.2 - 3.7
Mozambique 2.8 7 0.7 2.1 - 3.7 2.4 - 3.1
Nepal 2.8 3 1.1 1.6 - 3.5 1.6 - 3.4
Russia 2.8 15 0.8 2.0 - 5.0 2.5 - 3.1
Tanzania 2.8 7 0.7 2.0 - 3.7 2.4 - 3.2
97 Algeria 2.7 6 0.6 2.0 - 3.4 2.3 - 3.0
Lebanon 2.7 5 0.9 1.6 - 3.7 2.1 - 3.2
Macedonia 2.7 7 0.8 2.1 - 4.3 2.3 - 3.2
Nicaragua 2.7 7 0.5 2.1 - 3.5 2.5 - 3.0
Serbia and Montenegro 2.7 7 0.6 2.1 - 3.5 2.3 - 3.0
102 Eritrea 2.6 3 1.4 1.6 - 4.2 1.6 - 3.4
Papua New Guinea 2.6 4 1.2 1.6 - 4.3 1.9 - 3.4
Philippines 2.6 14 0.7 1.4 - 3.7 2.4 - 2.9
Uganda 2.6 7 0.8 2.0 - 3.7 2.1 - 3.1
Vietnam 2.6 11 0.6 1.6 - 3.7 2.3 - 2.9
Zambia 2.6 6 0.6 2.0 - 3.4 2.3 - 2.9
108 Albania 2.5 4 0.7 2.0 - 3.3 2.0 - 3.0
Argentina 2.5 11 0.7 1.7 - 3.7 2.2 - 2.8
Libya 2.5 4 0.8 1.8 - 3.5 1.9 - 3.0
Palestine 2.5 3 0.5 2.0 - 2.9 2.0 - 2.7
112 Ecuador 2.4 7 0.2 2.1 - 2.6 2.3 - 2.5
Yemen 2.4 5 0.8 1.6 - 3.5 1.9 - 2.9
114 Congo. Republic 2.3 4 0.5 2.0 - 2.9 2.0 - 2.7
Ethiopia 2.3 6 0.8 1.6 - 3.7 1.9 - 2.9
Honduras 2.3 7 0.5 1.5 - 2.9 2.0 - 2.6
Moldova 2.3 5 0.7 1.8 - 3.4 2.0 - 2.8
Sierra Leone 2.3 3 0.6 2.0 - 2.9 2.0 - 2.7
Uzbekistan 2.3 6 0.3 2.0 - 2.5 2.1 - 2.4
Venezuela 2.3 11 0.3 2.0 - 3.0 2.2 - 2.5
Zimbabwe 2.3 7 0.7 1.2 - 3.3 1.9 - 2.7
122 Bolivia 2.2 6 0.2 2.0 - 2.5 2.1 - 2.3
Guatemala 2.2 7 0.4 1.6 - 2.5 2.0 - 2.4
Kazakhstan 2.2 7 0.8 1.6 - 3.7 1.8 - 2.7
Kyrgyzstan 2.2 5 0.4 1.8 - 2.6 2.0 - 2.5
Niger 2.2 3 0.4 2.0 - 2.6 2.0 - 2.5
Sudan 2.2 5 0.3 2.0 - 2.5 2.0 - 2.3
Ukraine 2.2 10 0.5 1.6 - 2.9 2.0 - 2.4
129 Cameroon 2.1 5 0.4 1.7 - 2.6 1.9 - 2.3
Iraq 2.1 4 1.1 1.2 - 3.5 1.3 - 2.8
Kenya 2.1 7 0.5 1.6 - 3.1 1.9 - 2.4
Pakistan 2.1 7 0.8 1.2 - 3.3 1.6 - 2.6
133 Angola 2 5 0.3 1.5 - 2.1 1.7 - 2.1
Congo. Democratic Republic 2 3 0.6 1.5 - 2.5 1.5 - 2.2
Cote d'Ivoire 2 5 0.4 1.6 - 2.5 1.7 - 2.2
Georgia 2 7 0.6 1.0 - 2.6 1.6 - 2.3
Indonesia 2 14 0.6 0.8 - 3.2 1.7 - 2.2
Tajikistan 2 4 0.5 1.6 - 2.6 1.7 - 2.4
Turkmenistan 2 3 0.6 1.6 - 2.5 1.6 - 2.3
140 Azerbaijan 1.9 7 0.2 1.6 - 2.1 1.8 - 2.0
Paraguay 1.9 7 0.5 1.2 - 2.6 1.7 - 2.2
142 Chad 1.7 4 0.8 1.0 - 2.6 1.1 - 2.3
Myanmar 1.7 4 0.3 1.5 - 2.1 1.5 - 2.0
144 Nigeria 1.6 9 0.4 0.9 - 2.1 1.4 - 1.8
145 Bangladesh 1.5 8 0.8 0.3 - 2.4 1.1 - 1.9
Haiti 1.5 5 0.6 0.8 - 2.4 1.2 - 1.9