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Survey sources for the TI Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 2003

Number 1 2 3
Source World Economic Forum
Name Global Competitiveness Report
Year 2001 2002 2003
Who was surveyed? Senior business leaders; domestic and international companies
Subject asked Undocumented extra pay­ments connected with im­port and export permits, public utilities and con­tracts, busi­ness licenses, tax payments or loan appli­cations are common/not common. In addition to questions mentioned on the left: payments connected to favorable regulations and judicial decisions
Number of replies 4,022 ca. 4,600 7,741
Coverage 59 countries 76 countries 102 countries
Number 4 5 6
Source Institute for Management Development, IMD, Switzerland
Name World Competitiveness Yearbook
Year 2001 2002 2003
Who was surveyed? Executives in top and middle management; domestic and international companies
Subject asked Bribing and corruption exist in the public sphere Bribing and corruption exist in the economy
Number of replies 3,678 3,532 > 4,000
Coverage 49 countries 51 countries
Number 7 8
Source Information International World Bank
Name Survey of Middle Eastern Businesspeople World Business Environment Survey
Year 2003 2001
Who was surveyed? Senior businesspeople from Bahrain, Lebanon and UAE Senior managers
Subject asked How common are bribes, how costly are they for doing business and how frequently are public contracts awarded to friends and relatives in neighboring countries "Frequency of bribing" and "corruption as a constraint to business"
Number of replies 382 assessments from 165 respondents 10,090
Coverage 31 countries 79 countries1
1The survey was carried out in 81 countries, but data for two countries was insufficient.
Number 9 10 11
Source Economist Intelligence Unit Freedom House World Markets Research Centre
Name Country Risk Service and Country Forecast Nations in Transit Risk Ratings
Year 2003 2003 2002
Who was surveyed? Expert staff assessment (expatriate) Assessment by US academic experts and FH staff Assessment by staff
Subject asked Assessment of the pervasiveness of corruption (the misuse of public office for private or political party gain) among public officials (politicians and civil servants) Perception of corruption in the civil service, the business interests of top policy makers, laws on financial disclosure and conflict of interest, and anticorruption initiatives. Red tape and the likelihood of encountering corrupt officials. This includes small-scale bribes, larger-scale kickbacks and corporate fraud.
Number of replies Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable
Coverage 139 countries 27 transition economies 186 countries
Number 12 13 14
Source Columbia University (CU) Political & Economic Risk Consultancy PricewaterhouseCoopers
Name State Capacity Survey Asian Intelligence Issue Opacity Index
Year 2002 2001 2001
Who was surveyed? US-resident country experts (policy analysts, academics and journalists) Expatriate business executives CFOs, equity analysts, bankers and PwC staff
Subject asked Severity of corruption within the state How do you rate corruption in terms of its quality or contribution to the overall living/working environment? Frequency of corruption in various contexts (e.g. obtaining import/export permits or subsidies, avoiding taxes)
Number of replies 224 ca. 1,000 1,357
Coverage 95 countries 14 countries 34 countries
Number 15 16 17
Source A Multilateral Development Bank Gallup International on behalf of Transparency International World Bank and the EBRD
Name Survey Corruption Survey Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey
Year 2002 2002 2002
Who was surveyed? Experts within the bank were identified and multiple questionnaires (each relating to a different country) were sent out to them. Roughly 40% of the questionnaires were returned. Senior businesspeople from 15 emerging market economies Senior businesspeople
Subject asked How widespread is the incidence of corruption? (Widespread; Somewhat widespread; Somewhat limited; Limited; No judgment) "How common are bribes to politicians, senior civil servants, and judges" and "how significant of an obstacle are the costs associated with such payments for doing business?" Frequency of irregular "additional payments"; how is corruption for the operation and growth of your business?
Number of replies 398 835 6500
Coverage 47 countries 21 countries 25 transition countries