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Appendix: Survey sources for the TI Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)

Number 1 2 3
Source Columbia University (CU) Political & Economic Risk Consultancy
Name State Capacity Survey Asian Intelligence Issue
Year 2001 2000 2001
Who was surveyed? US-resident country experts (policy analysts, academics and journalists) Expatriate business executives
Subject asked Severity of corruption within the state Extent of corruption in a way that detracts from the business environment for foreign companies How do you rate corruption in terms of its quality or contribution to the overall living/working environment?
Number of replies 251 1,027 ca. 1,000
Coverage 121 countries 14 countries
Number 4 5 6
Source Institute for Management Development, IMD, Switzerland
Name World Competitiveness Yearbook
Year 2000 2001 2002
Who was surveyed? Executives in top and middle management; domestic and international companies
Subject asked Bribing and corruption exist in the public sphere Bribing and corruption exist in the economy
Number of replies 4,160 3,678 3,532
Coverage 47 countries 49 countries
Number 7 8 9
Source World Bank Pricewaterhouse Coopers Economist Intelligence Unit
Name World Business Environment Survey Opacity Index Country Risk Service and Country Forecast
Year 2001 2001 2002
Who was surveyed? Senior managers CFOs, equity analysts, bankers and PwC staff Expert staff assessment (expatriate)
Subject asked "Frequency of bribing" and "corruption as a constraint to business" Frequency of corruption in various contexts (e.g. obtaining import/export permits or subsidies, avoiding taxes) Assessment of the pervasiveness of corruption (the misuse of public office for private or political party gain) among public officials (politicians and civil servants)
Number of replies 10,090 1,357 Not applicable
Coverage 79 countries[1] 34 countries 115 countries
Number 10 11 12
Source Freedom House World Economic Forum Gallup International on behalf of Transparency International
Name Nations in Transit Africa Competitiveness Report Corruption Survey
Year 2002 2000 2002
Who was surveyed? Assessment by US academic experts and FH staff Senior business leaders; domestic and international companies Senior businesspeople from 15 emerging market economies
Subject asked Levels of corruption How problematic is corruption? Are irregular, additional payments required? In large amounts? How common are bribes to politicians, senior civil servants, and judges and how significant of an obstacle are the costs associated with such payments for doing business?
Number of replies Not applicable 1,800 835
Coverage 27 transition economies 26 countries 21 countries
Number 13 14 15
Source World Economic Forum
Name Global Competitiveness Report
Year 2000 2001 2002
Who was surveyed? Senior business leaders; domestic and international companies
Subject asked Undocumented extra payments connected with import and export permits, public utilities and contracts, business licenses, tax payments or loan applications are common/not common. Questions (in addition to those mentioned left) refer to payments connected to favorable regulations and judicial decisions
Number of replies 4,022 ca. 4,600 ca. 4,700
Coverage 59 countries 76 countries 80 countries

[1] The survey was carried out in 81 countries, but data for two countries was insufficient.